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[This web version is dated 31 October 2006, revised 2 December 2007.]

Lessons in Piano, Accompaniment and Singing
by Weldon Kilburn

Notes taken by Nigel Nettheim, Toronto, Canada, 1973-1975
© Nigel Nettheim 2006

Weldon Lilburn photo by Don Hill              Weldon Kilburn photo by Nigel Nettheim

Left: Weldon Kilburn, Toronto, c1976, photograph by Don Hill.
Right: Weldon Kilburn, Toronto, 1970's, photograph by Nigel Nettheim.

Introduction by Nigel Nettheim,

Sydney, Australia, 25 October 2006.

Weldon Kilburn (1906-1986) was a very successful Canadian vocal coach and accompanist. He spent his early years in Edmonton, Alberta but lived most of his life in Toronto, Ontario. His star pupil was the famous Canadian soprano Lois Marshall; his accompanying of her can be heard on a number of LP recordings.

I took lessons from him for several years in the 1970's, mainly in piano. At that time he was teaching independently, though he had earlier taught at the Royal Conservatory of Music, Toronto. The first lessons were given at the Heintzman Building, 193 Yonge Street, and then in a smaller studio near Sheppard station. I wrote up many, perhaps all, of those lessons when I returned home after each lesson and, so as to preserve them, I have transcribed those writings here.

A wide range is covered, and I hope readers might find remarks here and there that will be of interest and help to them. It is true that the writings may be of limited use without the possibility of hearing the playing or singing in the lessons, to which Mr. Kilburn was responding; but some of Mr. Kilburn's remarks are quite independent of my playing and singing, and may be found of value to others. Although they might in the future also be useful as a record of the kind of teaching taking place at that time, it should be pointed out that this teaching was far removed from typical conservatory teaching; no examinations were involved, and the study of music for its own sake was the only thing that mattered.

I have not used musical notation, instead referring in the text to bar numbers, note-names, rhythmical values, etc. I have endeavoured to proof-read these writings, but will appreciate readers pointing out any remaining errors. My own comments made in my notes at the time are indicated [NN: thus]; I might not subscribe to all of them today. A colourscheme indicates lessons mainly in:


Reference will be seen to the piano pedagogical ideas of E. Robert Schmitz, who had earlier spent some time in Toronto and who had influenced a number of the local teachers. Further details may be found in Schmitz's book The Capture of Inspiration, Carl Fischer, N.Y., 1935.

[Added 27 July 2007:] One of the most valuable things I learned does not appear in the notes taken from lessons. Mr. Kilburn would play a motif or a very small section of music and then stop completely and drop both hands right down onto his knees. By means of this physical gesture, deliberately exaggerated to make the point in the lesson, Mr. Kilburn conveyed, without requiring words, the need to separate out in one's thoughts the elements of the given composition and to reflect those elements appropriately in the playing. This should be done not so as to draw attention to it like a "good boy", but so as to shape all the playing according to the compositional elements. When this is applied throughout, wonderfully convincing playing can result. The analysis does not need to be self-conscious, and can be done on the spot ("in real time") while playing. Of course, all competent musicians know this, but it needs to be taught. It reminds me of seeing Yehudi Menuhin playing the Beethoven Sonata No. 7 in C Minor Op. 30/2, 1st movement: the first six notes (g',e'b,f',g',e'b,c') announce the motif, after which Menuhin's bow was dropped completely so as to point straight down for most of the duration of the following rest, and only then picked up for the continuation — it was as if he were confirming Mr. Kilburn's instruction.

Introduction kindly provided by June Rilett:

An Appreciative Voice Student of Weldon Kilburn

Toronto, Canada, 23 October 2006.

Nigel kindly asked me to provide a point of reference for his detailed notes which follow.

It was Weldon Kilburn's concept and approach to music, his unconventional way of teaching, his personality and his musical genius that inspired us all and made him the teacher he was.

For me, Mr. Kilburn was able to make sense of the whole nonsensical mire of voice production promulgated by most singing teachers. He inspired and excited students to use their imagination to find their own voices in the exploration of sound. For the first time he got me to think of singing as free sound divorced from manipulation and shaping of vowels, which is the usual approach taught by most singing teachers. Yes, you do use vowels to sing, but the vowel is not an end in itself. It is an articulation of a vowel at an exact rhythmic point in time with the consonants coming before the beat combined with the mental picture of a singer's emotional musical intent that can enable a singer to make extraordinary sounds. It is important to articulate each vowel precisely in the same way that it is necessary to put each key down on the piano. Mr. Kilburn would often use this piano analogy to demonstrate his approach to singing.

I never studied piano with Mr. Kilburn, but I know that the teaching of E. Robert Schmitz played a big part in Mr. Kilburn coming up with his own theory of teaching singing. Mr. Kilburn often referred to Schmitz in my voice lessons. It was through the teaching of Schmitz that Mr. Kilburn began to think that something logical could also be deduced about the teaching of singing. In WWI Schmitz spent three years at the front, served at the Battle of Verdun, received a shrapnel wound in his left hand, and was hospitalized for eight months. Schmitz's own understanding and theory of piano technique originated from his war experience: discussions he had with comrades who were scientists and from his observations of ballistics, mechanics, and acoustics.

In the Kilburn vocabulary, there was no such thing as high or low notes. He would often say that a high note is just to the right of middle C. Of course there are high and low pitches, but Mr. Kilburn wanted his students to remove the image of high and low from their minds, so that as singers they could grasp the unending possibilities of sound as they abandon the up and down theory of school children reaching and straining for the sky to get the high pitches (and tightening their shoulder and neck muscles while doing so) and reaching down to their boots for the low. Mr. Kilburn would often say that there is nothing in singing beyond the throat (where the sound is made, i.e. with the breath and vocal cords coming together), the articulation of the vowel at a rhythmic point in time, and the singer's musical intent. It was important to explore all different kinds of sounds to find the individual voice; that every sound had its own place in time; and to see music on the written page as only a short-hand and point of beginning for creating sound. He would always say that you have to do, not try, that the musical result is only as good as your intent, and that you cannot perform while at the same time being your own critic, for it will surely get in the way of a musical performance. If you think negatively, you will accomplish exactly that. Such thoughts should never be a singer's thoughts.

Mr. Kilburn did not receive the recognition that might have been expected from the musical establishment, because he was not a singer himself and did not have the formal qualifications. However, everyone who heard Weldon Kilburn and Lois Marshall knew that they were listening to musical geniuses, and singers with vocal difficulties who were studying with accredited singing teachers soon made their way to the Kilburn studio. This naturally ruffled the feathers of a lot of the establishment teachers and administrators. However, Mr. Kilburn was a singing teacher and musical giant who gained considerable prominence amongst singers for his unconventional but logical approach to singing. He related to all of his voice students as individuals and strived to bring out their own unique sound, and to impart to them his great musical gift in the interpretation of art song. He also treated us with humility and respect, giving each student his individual care and attention.

It's lovely to think again of those wonderful days studying with Mr. Kilburn. It is he who first stirred up my musical imagination, taught me how to go about interpreting a song, got me over my phobia of singing high pitches, and strived to make me think about making sound in the context of musical expression. For this I will always be grateful. He really was an amazing individual!

Here is a brief sound excerpt of Weldon Kilburn, near the end of his career in August 1977, accompanying June Rilett in a rehearsal at Hart House, University of Toronto. The sound quality is poor because the tape has deteriorated, but the excerpt may provide a personal touch. Mr. Kilburn is heard to say, in his humorous manner, "Are you ready, Madame?", June says "Hmm, I'm starting to get nervous!", and they then rehearse Schubert's Ganymed; we hear just the opening bars, in which Mr. Kilburn's forthright approach comes through clearly.


April 28, 1973
  An outline of E. Robert Schmitz's approach to piano playing.
  Take up a firm bridge only just before contact. The bridge extends from the elbow to the fingertip — the wrist is at the top. Know the feel of all chord forms e.g. dom-7th 1st inversion with f# as lowest note.
  Gestures should correspond physically to the musical gesture — it is choreography. All motions are circular, because one bone is attached to the end of the previous one. Hence in skips over large (or small) intervals, travel in circular arcs. (Combination of up-down plane and in-out plane.)
  Scales — 5-finger exercise CDEFG: play CGCG (arm release and retraction) with some appropriate movement of the upper arm. For C, the elbow is to the left, in, and up, for G out and up. This can be done fast. Interpolate E on the way out — no further work is needed for it. The elbow being down and back compensates for the third finger being longer. [NN (11 Mar 00): The elbow (and wrist) being up for the 5th finger perhaps compensates for the hand's sloping down to that side — compare Richter sometimes playing strongly with vertical 5th finger.] Then interpolate D, F similarly. Thus the situation at the elbow balances the length of the fingers to create a straight line of the finger positions on the keys.
  Rotation — upper arm rotation requires a bent elbow.

  People play an instrument because they cannot sing. The 'feeling' should eventually be in the hands and arms, just as with a singer it is in the vocal apparatus. Any means of playing a note is potentially admissible. A musician must become so aware of qualities that he is like a chef who can tell if a lemon has been brought within six feet of something.

April 30, 1973
  A performer is an actor. He can't listen to himself as it's too late. He must carry out his performance and not worry about whether it comes off or not. He also has no time to be a critic. Don't be a perfectionist. If one gets every note very clear and firm one may appear as a very good student but not a performer. Of course performers had to be students at first, but not finally. Re not being a perfectionist: many pianists sound very rough from a very close distance e.g. Paderewski — but excellent from a distance. Great pianists often play chords with hands of 'steel' — again the effect from a distance is good.
  Beethoven Moonlight Sonata third movement.
Can begin each group (RH) with the thumb playing outward (not projecting). Move the arm in and out a lot, i.e. a long way. Non-legato.

May 3, 1973
  Schubert Moment Musical No. 1.
"I can see you're a musician, because you play with one phrase answering another, which so many people don't do. There was a good sense of completion of ideas." The piece is like a conversation - there should be plenty of character on the people's faces. The dividing-up though was a bit too conscious — it would be better if the listener were not aware of it. The playing was too careful.
Bar 1 The first G is the main note, the triplet a decoration of it and return to it.
Bar 3 Similarly.
Bar 6 There are 3 notes in a group here, i.e. f g g then a bb bb. Don't break after the slur on f''. [NN: think of 3 8th-notes on the b'n dotted quarter.]
Bar 30 etc. Don't play it squarely.
Bar 32 Broadly.
Bar 45 etc. Don't make too much of the cn in the bass. Schubert is often very simple e.g. Sonata in A major D664 II bar 1: no cresc. etc. is needed on the repeated notes.
  Beethoven op 26-1.
Bar 2 Resolution of ab on to the first g; then an ornamental move from g to ab.
Bar 3 The 8th-note at the end of this bar is of course different in nature from those in bars 0, 1; i.e. the 'minuet' rhythm is changed now — it does not persist throughout the theme.
Bar 9 The first 2 notes are a unit; then follow 4 upbeats to the next bar — play these with crescendo.
Bar 18 Note and make clear the dissonances eb and c in LH — this means also a division into 2 pairs of 2 notes, not just 4 equal notes — but don't make this too obvious, as if to say "what a good boy and I".
Bar 26 There is a break of expectancy at the end of this bar.
Bar 34 The last note could be played with considerable significance. It was not necessary, i.e. Beethoven could have made the end a quarter note or another rest in LH [NN: see Liszt b minor Sonata.]

May 7, 1973
  Schubert Moment Musical No 2.
Bar 0 In a dotted rhythm one must feel the dot. Again the piece has a conversational style. After the first 4 chords it is as if one stopped and gazed pensively out the window for a long time and then thought and said the next 4 notes. Make sure the various 16th notes are consistently played i.e. equal in time value.
Bars 15-16 The bass is very important.
Bar 18 etc. Mr. Kilburn pedals twice per bar — on the 1st note so that it won't be too dry, and changing on the 2nd note to get rid of the first. Note the possible counterpoint indicated by the phrasing, the middle note of each 3 presumably being emphasised. Presumably it is implied that the marking continues in bar 22 etc. [NN but perhaps the LH "melody" could stay around c#.]
Bar 22 Play the high f# louder — Schubert being more naive than Chopin — and more classical, a melody going to a high note is normally to be played with crescendo to the high note, at least not falling away from it. This is the singing style.
Bar 26 Similarly go to the top f# — louder than the grace note.
Bar 34 Similarly.
Bar 35 Draw attention to the last c#.
Bar 42 Unusually, the indication is dim to the top — but still give a sense of going to the a''b.
Bar 43 Some rit is possible — almost necessary. In orchestration the oboe would be natural — and woodwinds generally.
Bar 47 The eb's perhaps are horns.

May 10, 1973
  Don't hold the wrist too high in the bridge, because finger tendons work through that area and rub against something, creating a "weeping --" and inflammation. The wrist should be rather level to avoid this action. Practice forming the shapes of chords accurately away from the keyboard and check at the keyboard. All shapes should become immediately available so that you can do anything on demand at the precise moment it is demanded. Then the shape will be taken up as soon as you read the notes on the score.
Schubert Moment Musical No. 2 ctd.
  How to 'bow' the theme (for violin ) is hard to decide. The third chord of bar 0 is an upbeat to the following d''b, but follows the shorter 16th note. A main difficulty in Schubert is to play light upbeat or passing chords; where other composers would have put a single note, he often has full chords.
Bar 14-15 Quasi winds.
Bar 18 etc. Second section — Schubert knew it could belong to the same piece as the first section. The increased animation by comparison with bar 1 etc. makes it seem to move a bit quicker.
Bar 57 How do the melodic functions here compare with bar 18? e.g. what is the function of the middle RH chord? It is not really needed.
Bar 89-90 To end, keep the previous (logical) phrasing i.e. (g ab , ab), i.e. don't make the break before the 16th note ab, but after it. Fingering on the Ab major chord LH 124 on the 16th-note, and then 215 on the long note.
  After "working out" the piece, one hopes to arrive at "simplicity".

May 14, 1973
Chopin Berceuse.
  Keep the bass going uniformly in tempo throughout. Slowing down at the end of the various variations would interfere with the lulling effect of the piece, which is a lullaby.
Bar 19 etc. Don't speed up — some RH rubato could be used.
  The analysis of a piece should not be made so clear that the pianist appears to be a good student — the analysis can be done on the spot, and the musical shapes and patterns will be appreciated, even if not consciously, by the audience.
Schubert Moment Musical No. 2 (continued).
Bar 0 RH fingering: 521, 521, 531, 521. Arm motions: down, up and in, down, up and in. This avoids striking the db's with a down stroke. The purpose of fingering is to enable the arm to do what it should do.

May 17, 1973
Play as if singing - play with the stomach - it must start in the toes!
Schubert Sonata in A major D664 2nd movement.
The first phrase is 7 bars made up of 2+2 and then 1+1+1, i.e. the last 3 chords of bar 5 (and of bar 6) are an upbeat corresponding with the last half of bar 2 (and of bar 4), and not corresponding with the last half of bar 1 (and of bar 3).
Bar 33 etc. This section is much more excited.
Bar 37 Crescendo to the top.
Bar 42 Very strong here.
Bar 70-75 Bring out the inner voices as well as the top. [NN: Bars 71-72 can be played as if ending the work; then bars 73-75 is additional; and before this bar 70 really was the end.]

May 22, 1973
  A good technique is obtained by having many ways of doing any particular thing, not just one way.
Schubert Sonata in A major D664 I.
The 1st note is a call to attention - one could imagine it held much longer than its written length. Do not trigger all the effects — just let some things happen without drawing attention to them; e.g. in bar 3 there is no need to emphasise the third beat chord even though it is a dominant which will resolve to the tonic in the next bar. Sing to yourself while playing the music.
Bar 5 There could be more strength here for the change, or less — either is possible. Less strength gives a wistful effect.
Bar 8 The last octave — make it light — do not use projection.
Bar 12 Recover the initial upbeat from bar 0 clearly — i.e. there should be a greater time between the 5th and 6th notes of the bar than between the 7th and 8th.
Bar 30-31 Play these progressions as a chord followed by a dominant chord, i.e. don't just play it as a sequence of V-I, i.e. the strong beats are the 3rd and 1st with phrasing
| 1 2 ( 3 4 ) | (1 2) (3 4) |, not
| 1 2 3 (4 | 1) (2 3) (4 | 1).
Bar 35 It's OK to change this as in bar 114.
Bar 37 It's OK to add octaves.
Bar 57-64 One can pause sometimes on the 1st note of the bar, but not too much. Note the "orchestration" — the bass is carried up to the higher register (i.e. the units are 2 bars).
Bar 68 The 8th-notes should be light - their dissonance is only for mystery.
Bar 83 etc. Be careful that the 16th-note octaves are light.
Bar 86 The last four notes: could be phrased
(1 2 ) (3 4 ) or
1 ( 2 3 ) 4 (Mr. Kilburn prefers the second one).
Bar 92 Hardly hear the top a.
Schubert Sonata in A major D664 II.
  The first phrase has seven bars. 2 + 2 then 1 + 1 and the 1st note of bar 7; then a close which reminds one of the typical closes (V-I) after recitatives in earlier style, and perhaps has much the same function. The phrase would seem unsatisfactory if bar 7 had only a tonic chord. [NN: cf. Moment Musical No. 1.]

May 24, 1973
Waltz in A flat, Chopin.
  LH 2nd chord should be very light. Note the 2-bar structure of waltzes (2 + 2).
Moonlight Sonata, Beethoven, 3rd movement.
  RH main figure — use closing up of hand and opening up — fingering 1235 at the beginning because then the thumb is more easily brought in to the c# for the next position; i.e. compare 4 on e and 1 on c# with 3 on e and 1 on c#. Use some supination to give greater freedom - the attitude is one of not holding any of the notes down. The caterpillar-like closing and opening of the hand applies also to Chopin Op 10 No. 1. Also in this note the fingering in bar 8 (as in the Schmitz edition).

May 28, 1973
Chopin Waltz in A flat Op 34 No 1
Bar 17-19 Don't divide too obviously into 2 + 2. Notice the appoggiaturas.
Bar 33 etc. Bring out the middle part:
1 1
whether using acrobatic fingering in bar 36 or not ( Mr Kilburn would not ).
Bar 49 etc. Rightly played with a good deal of enthusiasm as in Strauss.
Bar 67 etc. The idea of the rush in the middle, with slower playing at the beginning and end, is good.
Bar 245 etc. Again it need not be faster in general, just in some places e.g. 247(1)-249(1).
Bar 251 A new attack for the rising passage g' etc.
Bar 249(2-3) A change of 'face' here, by comparison with what just preceded, is implied. The idea of the type of 'face' the music has is important in getting interesting playing. Compare a chef adding a slight touch of lemon.
Bar 262 Can use 1 on a'.
Bar 264 Can use 1 on b'.
Bar 277 etc. This section need not be slower. It is quite possible for the preceding section to finish slower and this to be a tempo. After all, 301-3 must be tossed off.
Bar 283-4 etc. Bring out the lower voice of the RH.
Bar 304-5 In time — don't played the last octave too early.
  (Learn Chopin Etude in A flat Op. posthumous; Beethoven Moonlight Sonata.)
  Sight-reading: look at the page and judge what tempo is suitable; then stick to it no matter what happens.

June 11, 1973
Schubert Andante D029
Note the improvisatorial quality in the composing — that should be reflected in the manner of playing too.
Bar 6 N.B. a 32nd-note to be played, not nearly a 16th.
Bar 37 The theme this time starts in bar 37 with the upbeat, rather than bar 38.
Bar 52 [NN: I suggest this bar be deleted.] This bar could be played.
  Schubert seems to use the 32nd-notes to trigger some bigger gesture, i.e. when something is about to happen.
Chopin Etude Op posthumous in Ab
  Not too much playing for oneself, but instead prepare for performance; i.e. not too soft and inward.
Bar 21 First chord and elsewhere: make sure chords are played exactly together, when they are supposed to be — i.e. no breaking of chords in the Neuhaus manner, which is a mannerism of an earlier time.
Bar 16-17 Emphasise the 3 descending bass notes but maintain continuity.
Bar 29 Emphasise the gb when it appears.
Bar 37-40 Note that the upper part of the LH is to some extent melodious.

June 16, 1973

Compound 2 Vertical slap. Starts from the extension at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, which provides a sort of spring. Then the finger goes down vertically together with the dropping of the arm as in 'hang'. Each stroke has its own forearm 'hang' movement. The fingers are of course verticalized for the landing — hence there is no in-out adjustment. The effect is very brilliant.
Compound 3 Metacarpo-phalangeal slap. This is the light finger stroke — fingers nearly horizontal — there is no arm weight in this stroke (or hardly any). In this compound the fingers are independent — but not in other compounds, as the 4th and 5th have a common tendon and thus are either both flexed or both extended at the same time.
Compound 4 Metacarpo-phalangeal articulation. This includes ballistic contraction. The effect is brilliant — perhaps not quite so brilliant as vertical slap.
Trill with 4th and 5th finger — is difficult because of the comment on compound 3 above. There is a common tendon going across between the 4th and 5th fingers. The hand was evidently made mainly for gripping (flexing), not for extending, on the whole. Hence the 5th finger side has a lot of freedom to move over in towards the thumb, and the thumb is strong at flexing too. For a finger trill with 4 and 5, first play 4 by a hanging action of the finger — then the 5th must be flexed too, and will play by extending — thus the 5th finger action is similar to compound 2. [NN: could trill with 4 and 5 by first playing with both flexed in virtually the same motion as with acciacatura, then both extended, etc.] The 5th finger has 2 tendons — the outside one is for raising the 5th finger.

June 18, 1973
Chopin Etude op 10 no. 1
Don't try to join the notes together — a lot of pedal will be used anyway. Play 1 2 4 5 with 2 out and 4 on the way in (not 124 out as I intended) and 5 is given an accent by releasing more weight on it. Come out and up on 2.

June 21, 1973
Chopin Etude Nouvelle in f minor
Bar 2 Don't make a break after the first six notes — we know that it's going to be repeated — to break would be the style of a good student only.
Bar 3-4 (and 19-20 etc.) The falling seconds are the key — move to the first upper note (d'b) then resolve, then build up with a movement towards the next upper note (f ') etc.
Bar 40-41 The three heavy notes can be played with 'slap' with fingering 2 1 2 or other fingerings.
  Don't use soft pedal. Also project the 'voice' for a large hall — quite different from speaking to one person within a small room. Compare politicians, who have to be rhetorical even when speaking about very minor matters.
Chopin Berceuse
Bar 1 There are various ways of considering the chord grouping. Vary the dynamics during the piece. Note the improvisatory quality - bar 3: could play the first half of this bar and then stop there — then the next part would be thought of, etc. Play the LH evenly through the piece, but not too much so.
Bars 10-12 Play each of the 9ths in RH with a different expression. Bar 22 Don't necessarily go straight from the 1st note to the 2nd in this bar.
Bar 23 Don't rush the end of this into exact time, or it seems like an exercise.
Bar 24 1st note separation of LH and RH is permissible in a very romantic context.
Bar 23 Can hurry the middle part of the bar to leave more time for the end.
Bar 25-26 Similarly can hurry in the upward part to leave more time for the last half of bar 26.

June 25, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical No. 1
Bar 1 The 1st note is the 1st idea. 3rd beat — can catch the g's with pedal — then can use 4 5 in RH.
Bar 2 Compare with bar 18 figure.
Bar 5-7 Don't carve this bar into groups of V-I in various keys — this knowledge shouldn't be made too obvious — one is aiming for movement to bar 7(2).
Bar 10 Play clearly — resolve the 1st note by the 2nd before proceeding with the grace note in LH. The LH part is not to be confused with the are RH melody; it is itself melodic but separate from the RH melody.
Chopin op 25 No. 1 in Ab.
Do not hold the melody notes. Use in-out movement of the arm — in at the top and bottom of the RH figure — even though projection of the thumb is potentially strong, it doesn't have to be used for strength.
Bar 15-16 Use rotation for the inner part.
Bar 27 Less strong than bar 26.
The melody throughout seems to retain the quarter-note upbeat before the bar starts.
Bar 34 - 35 A little broader at the climax.
Bar 39 The high f played by outward brushing down with any finger.
Bar 41-43 The projection on the lower notes is already available from the technique used previously with light thumb notes.

June 28, 1973
Chopin Etude op 10 No 7
This is not romantic but like a toccata (though there are some nice sub-melodies also). Speed was adequate — the effect comes largely from clarity — the insistence and persistence of the figure and rhythm soon generates a feeling of speed. Don't rush anywhere — keeping the musical events in mind would prevent rushing — e.g. the first 4 bars consist of 1 + 1 + 2 (two false starts and the third again momentarily seems to be about to do the same thing).
Bar 17 etc. Can use almost compound 4 i.e. very straight fingers and light touch (RH).
Bar 22 Mr Kilburn plays this bar RH in pairs of 16ths — the first one projected, the second lighter forward up and off; then back for the next projection.
Bar 24 5th 16th note RH fingering 3 2 with some curving of the 3rd finger.
Bar 26 The phrasing is in groups of 4 16ths i.e. numbers 3-6, 7-10 etc.
Bar 48-52 Playing this with all projections is possible. Some tension may build up in this (and other) etudes — this is not really harmful — trains for endurance, i.e. with tension.
Mozart Bb Sonata K281
Rather bouncy and lively — not too slow — triplets of bar 1-2 indicate that a fairly brisk tempo is appropriate.
Bar 1 Trill: 3 pairs of 32nd-notes forming a triplet of 16ths, then a 16th and two 32nds (pitches Bb, c alternating) or an 8th with turn to a 16th and two 32nds.
[NN: Bar 9 crescendo to the top.]
Bar 17 No break in rhythm.
Bar 19 Also no break in rhythm.
Bar 27 etc. No slowing down — no change of tempo.

July 23, 1973
Chopin Waltz in Ab
Not too fast! (Consider the metronome speed).
Bars 1-2 Main accent on the f '.
Bar 3 Very strong low Eb — don't use 5th finger but instead 3rd, or several at once.
Bar 4 Note that the crescendo goes only to the dissonant chord, which must be the loudest up to the time; the last one not too soft of course.
Bars 13-16 Play in 3/4 — the f gets shifted around but is finally highlighted to quite some extent in bar 16.
Bar 17 etc. Play strongly, not sweetly. Waltzes are in pairs of bars, so don't play a 4-bar phrase, but 2 + 2.
Bar 23-25 The music goes to 25(1), not 24(2).
Bars 33-40 Note the harmonic scheme: bar 34 V bar 36 I — this should be made clear, otherwise there is no interest in the playing. Don't rush from one section to the next — consider speech, and have some breathing.
Bars 37-52 It must go to the f '' (as we can see later also in bar 280 after which it descends c-bb-ab).
Bar 245 etc. Coda: don't rush, don't increase the tempo at all (though it's usually done). Show its structure clearly in the playing so that it makes sense.
Chopin Berceuse
Don't slow down at the end of each variation, for it becomes a mannerism. Also note the way each close is also a beginning.
Bars 35-36 Don't distort the triplets.
Bar 47 This close is not a beginning; it is the end of something and a new beginning.
Bar 55 Similarly. Note the long hovering on cb before resolution to bb. Bar 62 Can slow down, but pick up tempo with the last 2 notes of the bar, i.e. go directly into bar 63 without rit. — thus there is a slight break after g''b.

July 27, 1973
Chopin op 10 No 7.
Don't speed up in bars 48 etc. Phrase this part in pairs of L.H. notes. Thus:
(f# g) (eb ab) (c# d) (b c bb f# g c).
Mr Kilburn thinks the first bars are one phrase per bar — thus bar 2 interrupts bar 1 with a repetition (new start); bar 3 seems to be about to repeat again. [NN: why not first phrase 4 beats (c d b g) then (a b c d b g) etc.]
Schubert D784-3
The octaves at the end: The wrist is used to some small extent probably in octave playing. Try to have the feeling of shaking them out from the sleeve. Can add some finger action also e.g. the 4th finger moving down straight from the knuckle, and the thumb similarly — the thumb stroke is almost rotation — thus try playing the 5th finger side with arm weight and adding forearm "rotation" to this for the thumb. Also grabbing, squeezing in —> <— a là Schmitz.
Bar 260 Can play the first three notes in a group and then change the position of the arm for the following notes. Can use 3rd or 4th finger on white keys if desired.
Bar 261 Avoid both arms trying to do OHR [outer humeral rotation?] at the same time. The common b best for L.H.
Schubert D784-1
Bar 29 etc. Use pedal on the long notes while changing position.
Bar 127 etc. ditto.

July 31, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical No. 1
Continuity is not required e.g. in the opening phrase — dominant g' with melodic decoration, followed by the e''-c' figure.
Bars 6-8 Could be (e | [ >e e ] e) ( e [ >e e ] | e ) (e >q.
or possibly to some extent ( e | >e ) ( [ e e e ] >e ) ( e | [ e e ] >q. )
{Notation: e = 8th-note; q = 4th-note; q. = dotted 4th-note; ( ) enclose phrased material; [ ] enclose beamed notes; > indicates an accent on the next note.}
Bar 38-39 Statement and answer (masculine and feminine). Some breathing is needed — play LH accompaniment with some breathing space "to give the soloist a chance".
Bar 33 Last 2 notes added to previous cadence almost as an afterthought.
Bar 59 etc. Phrasing probably in whole bars rather than q ( . . | q ) ( . . | q ) etc.
Chopin Etude op. 25 No 12
Rubato for LH melody part is good.

Aug 7, 1973
Schubert Sonata D784-1
Bar 34 etc. Speeded up here.
Bar 61 etc. Much more lyrical; will then contrast well with 1st group — especially note the 1st quarter note of age group of 4 — the 4 quarter notes are not just an upbeat to the accented half note, but are singing themselves.
Bar 79 and similar bars — a quality which can't be put into words.
Bar 99 Emphasise the d# especially, and in bar 102.
Bar 254 etc. Emphasise perhaps the tenor (upper part of LH); also in bars 260-263.
Schubert Sonata D784-2
N.B. Andante 2/2 so not too slow.
[NN: bar 4 cf 1st movement bars 1-2!]
Bars 19-29 Very great crescendo and going all-out here — then a single instrument (of the orchestra) is left playing at about 29.
Bar 50 No slowing down — the crescendo and diminuendo can be done quickly. The trills perhaps developed from bar 4. Perhaps fp at bar 57 as at bar 56.

Aug 13, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical no. 2
Andantino with three counts per bar is the only satisfactory way — not Andantino with nine counts per bar.
Bar 1 The first chord goes to the 4th, and must be heard to do so (i.e. the c'' to d''). Feel as if you can wait indefinitely on the d''b.
Bar 3 The figure is repeated — find out why — gives greater intensity — don't "just play it". With the greater urgency there may be some speeding up (rubato) and then slowing down slightly as the phrase ends — but don't let the second last chord of the phrase — the c'' 16th note chord — have any longer value than the 1/16th, because this would draw attention to it, and it is definitely not important.
Bar 8 pp not necessarily literally much softer than bar 1.
Bar 18 etc. If the tempo of the first section is not too slow this will not have to be played faster.
Bar 32-35 During the first two bars speed up and one can delay greatly the e'' and LH d#, then speed up again because you know you're going to slow down in bar 35. The +'s approximately balance the -'s here, but whether they always need to is hard to say. At the instant one plays bar 34, one thinks ahead to the intended ritardando in bar 35 and therefore speeds up in bar 34.
Use pedal; e.g. bar 0: Mr Kilburn would play the first chord and hold it with pedal — gives greater freedom for arm movements.

Aug 17, 1973
Schubert Sonata D784-3
Bars 51-76 Played in singing style
Bars 260-267 Think of playing only the fifth fingers, which seems easier than thinking of playing the whole octave.
Schubert Moment Musical No. 2
Also played with singing style — in triple time i.e. Andantino at three counts per bar, because nine counts Andantino doesn't work (especially bars 18-35).
Fingering bar 0: d''b with 5th finger, not 4. The reason is that it's easier for that chord, and also avoids the change of elbow location to the next chord which would give it automatically an unwanted accent. Hold the first chord (c'') with pedal. Especially avoid any heaviness on the third chord of the piece.
pp does not necessarily mean "very soft" — Mr Kilburn never allows his singers to sing pianissimo — always with intensity, and if it is that kind of intensity it will come across softly in fact — compare intense "soft" talking. Do not lose the intensity of feeling and play merely mechanically softly.
In the second section (bars 18-35) be careful that the RH and LH are together.
Bar 35. The last 3 notes can be separated slightly from the chord as if they were a kind of afterthought addition.
Singing style playing comes from the stomach, as does singing itself — if you're not out of breath after playing a long phrase, then you haven't been "singing".
Sight reading:
Modelling (Schmitz) is very important so you know all distances and chord patterns by the feel of the intervals.
Also there is use of the feel of black notes for guiding.
Always keep playing in time and try to get all the harmonies right.
Short-term memory is important as you play one bar (say) while reading the next bar.

Sept 11, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical no. 3 in f minor D780/3
Bar 3 Don't spoil the shortness of the first a'b by pedal here.
Schubert Sonata in a minor D784
Bars 27-33 Very strong playing needed — particular sounds might even be quite rough and ugly, but the whole effect would be right.
Bar 34 etc. Keep up the steadiness of rhythm in the LH and make RH fit in with it — not the other way around, i.e. don't deflect the LH at all for the sake of any expressiveness (rubato) of RH.
Bar 61 etc. Played at the same tempo as the 1st group.
Bar 62 The 1st and 3rd quarters are like appoggiaturas to the 2nd and 4th. [NN - note the similarity to bars 1-2 (diminution). Bars 1-2 can also be understood as 1st note, and 3rd, being appoggiaturas (in effect) to 2nd and 4th.]
[NN or WK?: The metre throughout seems to be 2/2 rather than 4/4.]
Bars 113 etc. Very strong. Achieve this effect by concentrating on the 16th-notes, giving the dotted notes relatively less attention.
Bar 122 Very strong accent on LH, and at 124 (half-notes). Also give a slight accent to the last 8th-note of the bar (RH).
Bar 126-127 No break here. [NN: perhaps a slight break in thought after the 5th chord of bar 126.]
Bar 128-129 No more break here than is indicated (i.e. the 16th-rest), otherwise it is like underlining the obvious.

Sept 14, 1973
Chopin Etude op 10 No. 7
Don't carve it up very much – it is toccata-like. The 1st bar is the first unit; begin again in the 2nd bar, and virtually again in the 3rd bar.
Bar 17 etc. Use straighter fingers in RH and very relaxed for delicacy.
Bar 18 LH a'-a-d fingering can be 1 4 5 with very great movement at the wrist after playing the a to get into position for the d with 5.
Bar 24 Break the chord into the 1st note separately and then the remaining 3 notes solidly.
Bar 30 Emphasise the minor chord appearing at the 4th beat. [NN: No! It is really V7 of F and the d'' appoggiatura to c'' should be accented rather than the b'b – perhaps on beat 4 b'b, beat 5 d'', beat 6 c''. In any case it might be ii of F first, as the harmonic rhythm is often enough in 8th-notes.]
Bar 41-42 No delaying here, as we have the final pair of chords following the preceding five pairs.
Bar 48 etc. Phrase in pairs.
Chopin Etude op. posth. in Ab
Play Allegretto i.e. quite light and airy and not too slow – quite free too (i.e. some rubato).
Emphasise the g'b at bar 34.
Different expressions in music are very much like different expressions on a person's face when talking.

Sept 17, 1973
Schubert Sonata D784-2
Not too slow – a fast enough tempo here will give it simplicity.
Bar 4 The 32nds should not be played to pedantically – the c must go to the b.
Bar 6 Already louder here at the beginning of this bar, because we know there will be a more intense development than in the previous phrase – this greater intensity shouldn't come suddenly like a surprise, but grow out of the phrase.
Bar 10 This seems like a second beginning of a phrase, after the one-bar beginning attempt of bar 9.
Bar 19-20 Note the structure in terms of bar 18.
Bar 21-29 Can get quite wild here.
Bar 31 etc. Clearly the tempo can't be too slow or the top part would become laboured.
Bar 62-66 Final phrase as if to say "that's it".
Chopin Etude in Ab op. posth
Quite "Allegretto". Make enough of the LH part in the middle section. NB LH appoggiatura.

Sept 21, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical no.2 Ab
Catch the first chord with pedal to free the hands to take the second chord. The pedal could be taken at the beginning of the first chord (or before) or just before the second chord is due to be played. The amount of pedalling done will depend on the amount of freedom you want to have for your hands, and on the richness of sound (amount of overtones) desired. The long notes here (dotted halves) would be best pedalled for warmth of sound, and this sets up a general requirement for pedalling throughout the piece. [NN: and thus in all music of this period, with very few exceptions]. The joining together of successive notes or chords or giving a slight break in sound, will depend on one's decisions about phrasing e.g. here there could be a slight break between in the 3rd and 4th chords, but not if you intend to show the c going to db. More likely one would have a break in continuity of pedalled sound in the middle of bar 4.
It is usually best to pedal much less than the full distance down, so that it can be damped very quickly and easily (half pedal etc.) – the "touch" of the pedal varies with pianos just as the "touch" of the keys does.
Some people pedal right through bar 0 of the Moment Musical, but Mr Kilburn doesn't like that.
Chopin Waltz in Ab op 34 No 1
Bar 2 No diminuendo. If you play here with diminuendo, the idea is lost (thrown away) and also the eb at the beginning of the 3 comes then from nowhere. The whole of the first 16 bars is a sustained dominant, and any falling away will lose this effect. Best not to pedal in bar 2, even though it is marked.
Bars 19-20 Now diminuendo here either, i.e. complete the 4-bar unit, don't throw away the last half of it; and similarly in what follows.
Bar 33 etc. More of the LH ( q q ) is needed.
Bar 51-52 Don't throw away the last part here again – aim for the f''; then at bar 56 for the g'' and of course at bar 60 for the c'''.
Bar 81-82 etc. The first part is the a'b - b'b half note; then take up the thread again with the quarter-notes at the end of bar 81. But don't make a unit of thought out of the first five quarter-note counts; instead the unit is the first three counts; then go to the f ' at bar 83.
Bar 94 Bring out the middle part (lower RH) but not by delaying it (as in old style) – instead just play it a bit louder – by holding the thumb lower in the descent of the arm – the thumb then will in fact touch slightly before the upper finger. Rather sentimental here.
Bar 245 etc. Organise the structure of this clearly; the 2 LH chords going to the next chord determine the harmony changes.
Bar 258-9 Lowest part was well brought out.
Bar 297 etc. Aim very definitely for the c''.
Bar 303 Aim for the c'''' here too – the fact that it's pp doesn't affect the fact that it aims for the c''''. If you make nothing of that, then Chopin might as well not have written those two bars (301-303).

Oct 10, 1973
Schubert Sonata in a minor D784-3
Bars 1-2 Each eighth note of each triplet needs to be well articulated, rather than smoothly played. Fingering perhaps 123123. Try shaking the forearm down (and upper arm forward) quite fast, at the same time using a grabbing action of the fingers. Make the two parts clear of course.
Bar 13 Not necessarily immediately piano perhaps.
Bar 25 No delay.
Bar 38 Play the scale as strongly as possible.
Bar 47-50 A strange passage.
Bar 51 etc. Play LH as if you were the first cellist in an orchestra. The eighth notes need to be clearly enough articulated. Don't regard the accompaniment as trivial.
The tempo was not steady enough.

Oct 13, 1973
Schubert Sonata in A major D664-2
Pedalling the first section is fairly straightforward. Pedalling the second section is difficult (bars 16 etc.). It depends what your attitude is to the LH part. It is partly melodic in the 16th notes probably, and not just harmonic. A good composer doesn't just write some notes because he couldn't think of anything else, but because he meant it. Perhaps very frequent pedal changes. The accompaniment is certainly not trivial.
Bars 20 etc. Pedalling here will be every eighth note.

Oct 16, 1973
Mozart Sonata in F K280-2
Played without pedal, though pedal is of course needed.
Bar 19 Mr Kilburn prefers a long appoggiatura here, and a short one in bar 20.
There is no need to play the second section slower (or faster) then the first section.
The markings f & p etc. can probably be ignored – do not perform them just because it says to (probably editorial rather than Mozart) but play in a way that makes sense, whether coinciding with the marked suggestions or not.
Question by Mr Kilburn: in bar 2 is the e''b a resolution of the previous dissonance? Or a passing note? This affects how it is played of course.

Oct 20, 1973
Mozart K280-2
Played again, this time with pedal.
Second section bar 9 etc. LH not trivial – compare the second section of Schubert D664-2 – the composers could be interchanged between these sections.
Bar 25 Perhaps somewhat meditative here.
Bar 29-31 Show the different voices by tone, not by timing. Presumably the stems of bar 29(1-3) should be up.
Bar 32 LH can be a summing-up of bars 29-31.
Bar 59(3) Emphasise especially the high f''; also the lowest note be of the chord needs to be heard, the inner notes very much less. It is a place where are some "magic" can be obtained. Mr Kilburn played 59 . . ( . . ) . ( . | . . . . ) [NN: but it surely should be 59 . . ( . ) ( . . . ) | ( . . . . ) But this doesn't affect the playing of 59(3).]
Magic can be introduced into playing e.g. Beethoven op 31/2-1 opening (play very slowly). The audience has to feel the magic, if you play it, whether they want to or not. One must do this in accompaniment preludes especially to create the mood for the singer, which she can't create by herself.

Oct 22, 1973
Wolf accompaniments
Bedeckt mich mit Blumen
Don't use the same rubato in all the 2-bar phrases.
Note the very different type of melody and harmony in bar 9-11 and react to it (warmer).
Bars 40-41 Give a considerable emphasis to the first chord of those marked > .
Bars 42-43 The upper LH part is probably the most important; after it ends on the e'b, emphasise slightly the echo of eb in the final chord. Bar 44 The last note can be played using the middle pedal if available.
Auch kleine dinge
Bars 1-4 Use a separate hand for each staff, i.e. don't play f'# in bar 1 with RH. The RH figure should be just a little thing without any weight attached to it (nor any preciousness [NN: which I would have expected]). The LH indicates the preciousness. The first beat might not be pedalled, or just to catch the last 16th of it. Bar 8 At such places, i.e. after the singers breath, don't delay her coming in, i.e. go straight to "Be-, and then "-denkt" can be given more time if she desires before it is sung.
Bar 18 Can be slower.
Bar 19 Not so slow as to spoil bar 20.

Oct 27, 1973
Chopin Waltz in Ab op 34 no.1
Bar 17 etc. Pedalling: For LH, just on the first quarter note of each bar. For RH: it is desired to catch the end of bar 17 to free the hand, so pedal just before the end of the bar, and after the LH third beat (staccato to some extent) has vanished. Do not "throw away" the mordents – they draw attention to a note.
Bar 33 etc. Do not speed up, which would just be to show that you can play the notes fast. Instead make the structure of RH clear (e.g. V-I-V-I; e'''b-e'''b-e'''b-a'''b) and the LH too.
In bar 42 etc. note the accent – surely the reason why the 16th rest appears just before it.
Do not throw away the grace notes either e.g. bar 84 – consider why he put it there.
Bar 245 etc. Don't merely play the notes. The LH chords on the first beat are "colour" chords. Play these chords or colours by themselves – it is not very subtle but it is good enough – compare with Wolf's colouring chords – especially bar 250.
Bar 274 etc. A quite strong accent is needed on the high notes (every third note) in RH.

Oct 31, 1973
Schubert Der Musensohn
Don't emphasise the bass at the beginning of bar 2 too much or it will interfere with the sweeping phrase. Similarly throughout don't emphasise the bass too much (though it must be emphasised enough).
Bar 37 Don't slow down here, as the singer will want to go straight ahead. If anything, speed up so as to leave room for a slight break before the new phrase without losing time. The most difficult RH chord c''#g''b and the next one: Mr Kilburn plays from in (i.e. at the back of the keyboard) to out, both chords in one movement.
Chopin Berceuse
Re the mental attitude to playing: don't "try to play well" – after thorough preparation nothing more can be done than to play normally. Nothing much is in the mind (being thought of) while playing. Bar 1 Don't divide it up into a first chord and the rest – instead just play it all together, and similarly for the melody. The piece is not profound – it should have an improvisatory quality.
Don't make the phrasing too obvious in cases where a listener will understand it easily anyway (e.g. after bar 47 to the end?).
Bar 55 The colour of this chord is all that is needed.

Nov 3, 1973
Mozart Sonata K310-1
I suggested bar 4(4) ought to be the beginning of a phrase going through 6(2) and 7(2) etc., and not interrupted at 5(3) – thus p already at 4(4) or 5(1). But Mr Kilburn said probably it should be played as an interruption to the expected (?) 3rd presentation.
Bar 5 Keep strict time throughout of course.
Bar 14 Calando unlikely as the piece is still very much going on, not dying away. [NN: maybe = dim.]
Bar 16 etc. With as much strength as bar one (compare them).
Bar 28 etc. Can make the two voices in LH clear by playing the second and fourth notes staccato [NN: so that the listener hears clearly that the sustained note is indeed being held]. The same in bar 29. In bar 30-32 probably emphasise the lower part.
Bar 59 etc. Can't be held by fingers but this doesn't matter since the long notes wouldn't retain much sound anyway.
Schubert Moment musical No. 1
Bar 1 The triplet must not be thrown away but must be played melodiously. Also one can't have a slight pause after the 1st note or the third g' – it is all the one phrase to the c''.
Bar 4 Go to the g' at the beginning of this bar – again the triplets in bar 3 and throughout are melodious. Especially note the triplet in bar 10 LH and don't throw it away.
Bar 33 Resolve to the first dominant chord, with afterthought. [NN: No, the first dominant chord contains passing notes to the e g – the second beat could have been just the (d e g) chord.]
Bar 36 Note the d octave broken into two 8ths instead of a quarter-note solid octave – thus emphasise the top d'' going to the e''.

Nov 7, 1973
The breath, under pressure, is forced up. It resonates in the head. There is a close relation to speaking, which we do naturally e.g. the tongue moves up for 'ee' but we don't think about doing it. The elements are: pitch, intensity, rhythm (when the sound starts and stops), dramatic quality. "Vocal cords" do not produce the sound, but instead a much more solid apparatus which vibrates in the lower part for the lower notes (low register), the upper part for the next highest register, upper lips of it only for the next highest, and the centre of the lips only for the highest register. There is some overlapping between registers. Singers must learn to make a smooth transition.

Nov 10, 1973
Mozart: An Chloe
Play very briskly and quite strongly – not too soft & thoughtful & ladylike, which would be a wrong stereotype of Mozart. Bars 41-44 ('den berauschten Blick...') piano phrasing should imitate (reflect) vocal phrasing, i.e. short panting gestures.
Das Veilchen
Bar 3 Lean on to the 8th note with accent – not as if end of phrase – to make clear the whole 2-bar idea. Bar 17 etc. & other places: It is of course pictorial composition in a rather Schubertian sense.
Bar 52 ('Es sank...') should be ritenuto, not rallentando.
Bar 58-9 ('zu ihren Füssen doch') considerable rallentando.

Nov 14, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical VI
Bar 2 Give full value to the first beat. This first little unit must be played as if one really cared about it, so as to get the listener's attention – some magic. Allegretto, presumably referring to three beats in the bar; so don't played too fast in an attempt to make a phrase out of the first 8 bars, which is too much for one breath – it contains three phrases.
Bar 32 Alternative version with mediant harmony is attractive, with melody still having g'#.
Bar 44-45 Don't roll the LH chords.
Bar 84 NB the bbb "tears in the midst of smiling".

Dec 5, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical VI
Bar 17 etc. Make sure the lower voice in each hand is heard clearly — don't "throw away" these 4 bars.
Bar 37-39 Play these as if they had a different "facial expression" from bars 34-36.
Bars 44-45 Again don't roll the LH chords.
Breathe more in between phrases, e.g.
Bar 70 Breath is needed here before you go on to sing the next phrase. Don't rush the 3rd beat chord of bar 70 as if you were making sure to get it exactly on the 3rd beat. The fp marking probably draws attention to the start of a new phrase.
Bar 74-75 Can be played as a cadence on to V with bars 76-77 played as an isolated octave, perhaps the last time.
Bar 78 etc. The top voice must be louder than the rest — hold the fifth finger lower – it will strike slightly earlier.
Bar 81 Not staccato – don't change articulation extremely here – hardly at all.

Dec 8, 1973
Schubert Impromptu D935 no.1 in f
Play the opening more arrestingly.
Bars 1-3 Don't played the 16ths as if counting to make sure they are exactly right, but emphasise the stop-start feature of the dotted rhythm — a new urge or surge for each 16th, combined with its following dotted 8th-note.
Bars 11-12 Don't played the triplets according to the beats of the bar, but according to the shape of the phrases e.g. a slight pause after the 1st and 7th (and 13th) of the notes.
Bar 13 Continue straight on after the first chord — no delay or break.
Bar 17 Continue straight on here too and in all similar places — don't give the effect of an ending on the f ', but do give the effect of a new beginning on the a'b. To pause at the end of these phrases would divide up the piece into too many small sections, and would be unnecessary underlining.
Bar 30, 32, 34, 36 etc. same comment as above — no delay.
Bar 70 end -71 beginning Low part — emphasise just the lowest part i.e. the melody, not the ebs. But one could also bring out the counter-melody in the top of the RH i.e. c'-d'b-c'-bb. Bar 79 Pedal the cb very soon after playing it — there is time to catch it — pedal the 1/128th-note after playing it [NN: but the vibrations of the Bb will be caught then].
Bar 217-218 The LH fingering is easy if you pedal each chord separately.

Dec 12, 1973
Sight reading songs: read all three lines at once (staves). Compare a person looking at the knob on the piano lid — a bad sight-reader sees only the knob; a good sight-reader sees also the surrounding parts of the piano.
Mozart Das Veilchen
Play the solo parts as a soloist.
Bar 5 Pedal each chord lightly to free the hands but still get legato.
Bar 35-38 No need to play finger-legatissimo (à la Gieseking) — it is not written that way.

Dec 15, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical VI Ab
Played too slowly — it is Allegretto presumably one count per bar.
Bar 0 The first chord in this figure must be light — not too solid.
Bar 12 I paused considerably after the e'' natural i.e. the after the first chord of the bar — this is very reasonable, but it is much better to go straight on without loss of time but with just piano (as marked).
Bar 32 Note the 64 and its resolution — give it the usual treatment i.e. a little inflection accordingly.
Bar 49 The half-notes in the RH could have had dots after them more likely — it's unnatural and un-Schubertian to delay them till the second beat — sounds wrong.
Bar 51-53 Just let it fall away.
Beethoven An die ferne Geliebte
Bars 9-11 Don't get slower towards the end of this expressive phrase, (just before the voice re-enters) because the singer will then think "hurry up, I'm coming in here" — i.e. go straight in to the singers' entries, even if it's at the end of a piano phrase.

Dec 19, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical 6
Try playing with a bemused attitude.
Chopin Ballade Ab
Don't sectionalize too much — keep moving at joins e.g. bars 115-116.
Bar 2 Don't have the f'' e''b pair of notes so detached from the preceding as to seem to come from nowhere, in spite of Chopin's phrasing.
Bar 26 etc. The 16th-notes not too metrical and vertical.
Bar 54 etc. With plenty of lilt, and top note (melody) predominating.
Bar 57 N.B.ab in 5th beat.
Bars 101-103 Answering phrase to bars 99-101.
Bar 116 etc. Bring out LH very clearly — again at bars 126-127.
Bars 136-144 Top voice clear above the rest.
Bar 189 A tempo (after the smorzando from bars 187-188).
Bar 205 5th finger LH can hang strongly.
Bar 231 etc. LH bring out as in bar 116 etc.
Bar 239-241 Chords quite slow.

Dec 22, 1973
Schubert Moment Musical 6
Played with "bemused" attitude. But greater dynamic contrasts are needed e.g. bars 10-11.
Bar 17: Don't start the piece (bars 1-16) too soft or it won't be possible to play softer here, as required.
Bar 65-66 etc. Louder, and emphasise the LH D's.
Bar 114-115 To achieve the return to the Allegretto, detach the last two chords of the Trio, which form the same rhythm as the opening of the Allegretto — then very little pause, almost imperceptible, is needed. [NN: I would make a big pause, except that it would seem to the average audience that the piece was finished.]
Chopin Ballade Ab
Bar 2 The music goes to the e''b, not to the f'' — so don't put an artificially "correct" accent on the f '' chord.
Bar 26 The 16th-notes must be fluent (fluid); they can be played a bit faster than strict tempo and then slight pause before 37 (1). The phrase (slur) can go to f''''.
Bar 54 This melody should be very lilting — emphasise the top notes.
Bars 101-103 Make clear the relation to bars 99-101.
Bar 57 NB the diminished chord — the ab in LH is very expressive.
Bar 113-116 No rit. and no break before the next section.
Bars 116 Bring out LH strongly.
Bars 136-144 Bring out the top part (melody) strongly.
Bars 179-183 Look at LH jumps & feel RH patterns. Bar 189 etc. a tempo (smorzando ends at the end of bar 188).
Bar 227 Cut back very greatly at the beginning of this part. Mr. Kilburn makes no delay before bar 229(1) (or a very small one).
Bar 231 etc. Bring out LH (as before).
Bar 239-241 Very deliberate tempo — a thrust for each chord — not rushed at all.

Jan 12, 1974
Schubert Impromptu D899/3 Gb
[1] Make more of the middle part - not excessively, but note that bar 1 beat 2 is different from beat 1 on account o the extra note d'b. Similarly play the pairs in bar 3 with some thought.
[2] Don't inflect a phrase the same way every time in repetitions e.g. bar 10(1), 12(1), 18(1), 20(1), 64(1), 66(1) could all have a slight pause before playing the chord, but better sometimes to go straight to it.
[3] Some things not quite clear: 47(2) LH, 52(4) LH, 82(1-2) LH, 83(1-2) LH.
[4] The playing was very good — this comes from letting one's "base instincts" show.

Jan 16, 1974
Schubert Sonata D784-I
Bars 1-2 The end of the first figure is rather abrupt — the 8th-note — cf. bar 61 etc. Make the contrast very clear (also bar 9 etc.).
Bar 27 etc. LH played with hand following an arc, partly vertical arc and partly in-out arc, to suit the white-black note patterns.
Bar 51 etc. Assisted by a bend at the elbow, as this helps the fifth finger side — it makes upper arm rotation possible [NN: this will also strengthen the fifth finger side in solid octaves] — can play somewhat from above.
Bar 61 etc. See bar 2 comment; consider the enormous range of possibilities for the duration of a sound — Glenn Gould recording of Handel Suites showed he had about 18 different degrees of timing the ends of notes. Not just limited to what can be counted, but what can be felt. Mr. Kilburn plays bar 61 with the second chord lasting somewhat longer than the first. Make many experiments.
Bar 68, 80, 84 Legato presumably to be taken literally.
Bar 79 The ff chords are real interruptions, as if someone shouting loudly was interrupting what was being said softly.
Bar 52-53 The leap: move directly in an arc, half as high as wide — never find the new position first as you might find it wrongly — then correction is most awkward.

Jan 19, 1974
Schubert Impromptu in Gb
Don't trigger the effects — let it sing along, with the tension sometimes arising.
Bar 25 etc. Play the 1st note of the LH clearly — must be heard clearly so that the listener knows what is happening — what the figure is.

Jan 23, 1974
Schubert Sonata D784-II.
Tempo: note C| — not too slow.
The mysterious figure in bar 4: the 1st note as a thing on its own, and what follows joined together — this results in the second dotted rhythm becoming nearly a triplet rhythm — experiment with this. The d'bs are of some importance too — but not the c's which are just passing notes. The effect is helped by a fast enough tempo.

Jan 26, 1974
Rachmaninoff Prelude in g# minor
Keep to tempos and tempo changes as marked throughout — don't start page 4 too slowly (this would require acceleration to the climax as well as crescendo, but this is not right).

Jan 20, 1974
Could be your language i.e. way of communicating, if you were brought up that way, just as if brought up in China you'd speak Chinese.
The first element is a dramatic intent.
The second is rhythmic intent (when to do something).
The third is sound intent — essentially vowel — the body apparatus takes up the shape of an instrument which, when blown through, will produce the required vowel.
Intentions have automatic responses, i.e. don't try to "say" a "word", just do it.
Don't criticise yourself — can't hear oneself correctly — and it's too late anyway, once the sound has been set in motion.
Apparatus in throat - registers.
Resonance in the head area.
Breathing — feels like pushing down with diaphragm — rib cage must be held firm (singer's stance) — cf. lifting: diaphragm is the strongest lifting muscle — hence we inhale before lifting.

Feb 2, 1974
Schubert D784-I
Bar 2 Make a separation between the two parts of the statement i.e. at the 8th rest — and make it clear that what follows the rest is a different sort of thing. The last two notes (bar 4) are an entity too of course.
Bar 11-14 etc. RH phrasing can be better — the 1st note is something — perhaps like appoggiatura to d', and the movement e' to f' should certainly be felt. Then the g' in 12 and f' in 13 are the expressive notes here — don't emphasise instead the f' and e' which would be underlining the obvious.
Bar 62 Make a noticeable separation of sound — though some pedal could be used on the f'# i.e. 3rd beat, to help indicate the appoggiatura aspect, though this can be done just by a slight difference in tone.
Bar 68-69 Does the c'# in LH go to e' or to b? Decide which you think and give it a definite direction — to the b is quite possible. Similarly various possibilities in 70.
Bar 70 Play the melody differently from 62 as it is a different kind of thing — more floating perhaps.
Bar 113 etc. This had a good shape — even though all ff it does need a shape.
Bar 274-275 Was not as good as the others — move the body well to the right for the top notes (of LH) and back again for 276. One could end bar 275 very abruptly, in spite of the dim sign in 58.
From another student's lesson: the audience has to breathe and so the performer must breathe according to the music (vocal style) or they won't have a chance.

Feb 6, 1974
Schubert Sonata D784-II
Opening melody: can phrase as marked i.e. the first 4 notes, then the next 4, then the 3 note cadence. (The a' in bar 2 has a dominant feeling.) My idea of the first 3 notes, then the next 4, then 2, and then 2 is also possible but not as simple.
Bar 4 Don't make the rhythm triplet. Use a bad fingering (!), as Schmitz used to say in such cases — a good fingering would give too solid a result.
Bar 21 Start a characteristic bouncy rhythm here, which will continue unchanged through 31 till 48 — this must be made clear. [NN: It is not frantically fast by any means — but this seems to require the time signature C, not C| for Andante.]
Bar 31 etc. The bouncing figure continues — don't give it any noticeable rubato or that character of it will be lost. It is higher than singing range; the singing is in the LH.
Bar 50 No rit towards the end — just straight through.
Bar 51 Don't give the feeling of stopping on the 64 chord — it can't stop there but must go on.
Bar 62-63 Try to phrase it as given i.e. the 2 bars under one slur.

Feb 9, 1974
D784-II Again — incorporated above.

Feb 13, 1974
D784-III bars 1-76 only
Bars 1-2 etc. The beginnings and ends of the figures (i.e. of the 7-note figure) must be made clear. The accent doesn't really belong on the last note but on the first; just giving their last one its full length is sufficient for it.
Bar 15 A slight break before this bar.
Bar 25 Make the skips letting the arms fall in towards the body — then there is no difficulty. The 64 chord should be stronger than the V. Especially at bar 30 since bar 31 is a beginning of a new event.
Bars 42-44 Form the shape of the chords (LH) with the fingers in advance.
Bars 47-50 A brilliantly simple way to get from the previous material to the following.
Bar 51 This must sound obviously like the beginning of the tune, not another in the series 47-50 7mdash; pause a little before it, even though there is no rest in 51.
Bar 51 etc. Phrase as written for 51-52 — then the 2 bars 53, 54 should stand by themselves. The melody can be played very romantically (intensely). LH: a full enough sound supporting it.
Bar 68 Make sure the f' finishes it, then the next three notes go straight to the following a' in bar 69.
Bar 69 We certainly expect here a return to 51 — but the d''b at 67(1) would completely spoil the effect of the d''b in bar 52. So he cleverly goes back to 61 instead. [NN: N.B. not 59.]

Feb 16, 1974
Hum the descending arpeggio one octave.
Have the feeling of aiming for a distant abstract audience, not to the nearby teacher.
Then sing the arpeggio to various vowels.
"ee": don't try to say "ee", just take up the shape for it and sing normally.
Don't look down or feel down for "low" notes — they are not low — the air still comes up as for any note. Sing the triad up and down over the break region — it's necessary to use separate impulses in such cases.
Later the falsetto notes will take on more of the character of the so-called "chest" tones.

Feb 20 and 23, 1974
Schubert D784-III
Incorporated in Mch 9.

March 5, 1974
Just blow through the apparatus — the voice break occurs naturally of course.
Vowels — diphthongs "ay" is sung as "e-ee" (short — long), "eye" is sung as "ah-ee".
Italian is said to be good for singing because it has no diphthongs. The Russian alphabet has 32 letters and no ambiguity as in English ('th' in theme, the).
Sing patterns such as f f' c' a f across the voice break.

March 9, 1974
Schubert D784 (the whole Sonata)
1st movement
Bar 4 8th note: be consistent about its length throughout the movement, especially in 34 etc. 7mdash; don't allow the pedal to lengthen it.
Bar 11 etc. Note that the 3rd beat is a dissonance — the e against the d minor harmony — not just a passing note — play it bringing out its dissonant aspect (accent); similarly bar 17 etc.
Bar 62 Again the 3rd beat is a dissonance — an appoggiatura — play accordingly in similar bars — but not in 70 and 72, where it is not an appoggiatura — and not in 80, 84.
2nd movement
No comments.
3rd movement
Bar 43-44 LH clearer, and especially RH clear — each quarter-note has its 4 sixteenths, which are divided in general just as the four beats of 4/4 meter, i.e. strong, weaker, medium strong, weak. Each must be played clearly and properly — no rush — then it sounds fast to the listener, because so many clear notes follow quickly — but if it is considered as 4 notes in a rushed sweep, then it doesn't sound fast at all. [NN: Apply this to all playing, i.e. don't think only of the main beats but of all beats and sub-beats.]
Bar 30 etc. No delay between the end of the arpeggio and the chord — even a very slight delay spoils the effect.
Bar 260-267 There was a good feeling of great energy here, as required.

March 13, 1974
Fast scales and scale fragments: break up the notes with an "hhh" sound at the end of each note — then it is the same as laughter except that the initial "hhh" will not be needed. And laughter is practically the same as weeping.
Anecdotes about Lois Marshall: she had a small voice at first. She sang with eyes closed and both thumbs pointing upwards!! She denied that she sang with her eyes closed, but one day Mr Kilburn softly walked up and stood right in front of her while she was singing and she got a shock when she finished and opened her eyes. Everyone who has achieved anything in singing or any musical performance must have made innumerable wrong notes early and along the way — so ignore them — and get them done early rather than later.

March 16, 1974
Schubert D784-3
Bars 43-44 Playing all the notes clearly — not too fast.
Bars 45-46 Try a shaking motion — but not a too deliberate one. Note the accent on the 1st note of bar 46 — don't miss accenting that beat.
Well played but try for a more flowing quality, not perhaps pointing out quite so much to the listener.
Bar 31-48 The RH part not too deliberately played.
Moment musical No. 6
Don't play metrically — a breath between phrases and gestures — the opening material was too rushed. The first three notes have one facial expression, the next three a different one. And then a different one again, perhaps straighter. Mr Kilburn does no counting while playing this (though sometimes one has to count while playing).
Bar 49 Make it clear that the g's are passing notes, not a resolution of the ab's on the first beat — so don't delay i.e. don't pause on the g's.
Bars 66-70 The climax of this phrase is not at bar 68 (1) but at 69 (1), so make this clear, in spite of the dynamic marking.
Bar 73 Make clear the new little added point in the grace note.
The third beat of the bar in 3/4 time (and in general the last beat of a bar) is a gathering of force in general — as if to say "and what's more". So it should not be slighted.

March 20, 1974
The falsetto and ordinary voice will soon merge — can glide from one to the other without a break.
Have the feeling that the work in singing is being done only from the stomach to the heart and focussed at the heart, so as not to be tempted to try to control what happens above that.
Vowels: sing "ah" on a low note — then sing legato to a high pitch — the vowel will automatically change (if the singer doesn't interfere) to "oh" and then "oo"' or "eu" as in the French "peu". These are the open vowels. Similarly "eh" becomes "ee". Very high all vowels are alike. "Ee" has the tongue further up than "eh" - hence less space above it, hence a "thinner" sound and easier to sing at high pitches.
Similarly "oo" is easier to sing at high pitches then "oh", and "oh" is easier than "ah".
When women sing beyond c''' there is a change of register again, and they too are reluctant to sing there at first, tending to apologise for what at first seems a bad sound.
The note e' is dangerous for me to sing in normal voice, so it will often be largely falsetto.
Singing low falsetto — can only be done at greatly reduced volume, or else the voice goes into the normal voice (singing a descending major scale from f'# down to f#).
Lois Marshall can sing the low G. (an 11th below middle c) whereas Maureen Forrester cannot sing it!
The main trouble singers have is not recognising the "oneness" of sound, i.e. they sing a "word" on a "note" as if they were two separate things. But consider dramatic declamation — ups and downs of pitch come naturally there, and a song is an extension of that idea, in which the composer has told the singer how to do it.

March 23, 1974
Schubert D784
1st movement
Bars 11 etc. Note that the unit is the whole bar — thus bar 13 resolves to bar 14 — make this clear in the playing, i.e. don't stop the thought after bar 13(2). The e' in bar 11 is a dissonance in effect, even though not in sound, because d minor is prevailing.
Bar 61 etc. Note the pairs of notes in bar 62; different in 70 — a gentler effect there.
3rd movement
Bar 25 No delay — move in an approximately circular arc — then gravity brings about the down movement.
Bar 44-45 Similarly, and 218-220.
Bars 43-44 Still not quite clear enough.
The general effect in strong passages "overwhelming".

March 27, 1974
Concentrate on getting greater resonance — a big sound, as if addressing people in a large hall.

March 30, 1974
Schubert Impromptu in Ab D899 no 1.
RH technique: use thumb on the 4th note of each quarter; first 2 notes are down, out from the keyboard and upper arm rotation; next 2 notes are up, in towards keyboard and preparation for upper arm rotation. Play the whole of the phrase as a unit.
Bar 3 a new beginning.
Bar 6 a suddenly stopped cadential figure.
Bar 7 a new beginning; and similarly.
Bar 28 also ends the cadential figure, then comes the separate unit bar is 29-30 (rather than 28 going into 29).
Bars 39-42 A separate impulse of thought for each bar — rather than trying to connect the bars by playing "musically". An almost jerky movement is made to begin each bar, and between the 2 LH positions of each bar.
Bar is 47 etc. Phrase as marked — again each bar is a new impulse; at first sight it seems more obvious that the last 8th note goes directly into the following bar, but follow instead the phrasing as marked.
Bars 72-79 Don't make a point of the high melody notes d''b and f'' in 73 and 77 because the phrases actually go not to the high point but to bars 74 (and 75) and to 78 (and 79).
Bar 135 It is right to go to the e''', i.e. don't play it as a resolution of the d'''#. Note that it is a "resolution" to a chord which is still a dissonance.
Bars 139-146 Very peaceful and quiet for this major section — very different mood from the minor of 107-etc.

April 3, 1974
"For the first time I really sounded like a singer" — singing with less effort but still the resonance was good.
The "oo" vowel is a hard one to sing (or say) loudly — always "soft" words tend to have that vowel whereas for loudness we say "see here". An exception is "Boo!". The vowels of speech are appropriate to the speech range of pitch, but not in general to higher pitches without being modified. Don't force "oo" when high and loud.
Fast scales or scale fragments with rough laughter gesture — consider energy needed. Practice as roughly as possible, as it's easy to smooth it out when desired. It is sometimes used, as in "furiously rage together". The whole body, or various parts of, take part, not just throat or just stomach etc.
Study of the medico-surgical details of singing is a complete waste, as we have the muscles which know what to do when we have a certain dramatic intention, so just let them do it.
The muscles used in singing will be strengthened by use.
How to stop the sound, i.e. the end of the sound — don't just stop pushing air through, as this will be uneven and unclear. Instead just intend to stop the sound, and the vocal apparatus will disengage (move apart, whereas it was together) — then of course one will not keep blowing air through after cutting off the sound. Listen to any good singer end his notes very definitely. It's the same with any instrument.
There is no such things as relaxation, except for mental relaxation (or psychological) when you know that you can do what is to be done. But even one bar that you're worried about or have any doubt about can ruin a whole concert by bothering you psychologically.

April 6, 1974
Notes above e'b not too loud yet; lower notes can be loud. Don't try to help the voice as between falsetto and ordinary voice. Low notes near the limit of what is possible can't be very loud.
Schubert Impromptu D899 no 4 Ab
Bar 1 etc. Still more rotation is possible. The purpose of the "up-in-left" movement on the 3rd and 4th notes of each group of 4 is to get away from the keyboard.
Bar 2 The chord is an abandoning gesture, then the new start in bar 3.
Bar 5-6 I play this with rit — he wouldn't, though it is possible and quite beautiful.
Bar 39 etc. This section calls for "witty" dialogue (or monologue) — each bar a new gesture.
Bar 47 etc Don't get faster here.
Phrasing — compare the end of Schumann "Du Ring am meinem Finger" —
Neuhaus: (eb' eb'' g' ab') (bb' c'' eb'' g' a') (bb' c'' eb'' d'' c'' bb' c'' bb' d eb')
Kilburn: (eb' eb'' g' ab' bb' c'') (eb'' g' a' bb' c'') (eb'' d'' c'' bb' c'' bb' d eb')
Kilburn at first played it with the Neuhaus phrasing but on thinking about it concluded that it is too obvious a phrasing, and changed to the one shown below. Compare also Impromptu D935 no 3 in Bb theme. Note the phrasing. The first five notes are a unit obviously, but they are slurred as two units — so play them in such a way as to sound both joined and slightly separated. Compare also D899 no 3 in Gb.
Back to D899 no. 4. Phrases in the Trio section had plenty of room for breath — phrases in the other section needed more air.

April 10, 1974
Maintain the position of the vocal apparatus throughout the duration of a particular sound, until the next is intended — then the change is made. Don't abandon the position for a sound just after beginning it — one doesn't do so in speaking with any clarity and deliberateness.
The same applies to piano playing with respect to gestures — perhaps one note, perhaps a few notes (subphrase) — and this applies also in singing a melody, i.e. complete each component part of it before moving on to the next component part — even for small-scale components of a simple melody (illustration from Seraglio).
Can sing with full volume (dramatically) up to d'. Above that at present less volume, and let it go to falsetto whenever it does.
A singer cannot hear himself properly at all, because he hears what's inside him, i.e. he is in a very bad location — if he uses his own hearing as a guide, he may do just the opposite of what he should do, i.e. not project and focus the voice. A singer who has a big voice might not think he has.
On learning the piano: when young, one tries to get everything right, but later you realise you can't do that.

April 13, 1974
Beethoven Moonlight Sonata
1st movement
Too much pointing out the events instead of just letting them happen. (Slight stopping before a significant harmony — not necessary).
Main theme bars 6-9 should go to the 64 chord at 8(1).
Bar 32-36 Some crescendo or crescendos needed here though not marked (because obvious?) [NN: I don't agree — he would have marked it].
2nd movement
An elusive type of singing quality.
Bars 17-etc. LH line very important.
Trio: Give greater accent in LH on fp notes. It is possible that the LH (including its lower line) answers the RH, i.e. f' Db; G'b Eb; e''b Gb; etc.
3rd movement
Bars 1-2 Accent on the beat needed to give agitato quality — the upward movement along the arpeggio [NN: but he would have marked accents if intended]. Achieve this by more in-out movement of the arm.
Bar 7 Get the hand well away from the keyboard before playing the second of the repeated notes (cf Schubert Ab Impromptu D899 no 4). Then apply a stroke which may include some forearm rotation. To have the hand still in its position after playing the first c'# would not give you a chance.
Bars 9-10 etc. Don't play with flat fingers and low wrist which is not a strong position, but instead with higher fingers and wrist dropping each forearm one from above and letting the high g''#s take care of themselves. This is a very strong way of doing it.
Bar 43 etc. Keep up the agitato quality throughout — here p and so an undercurrent but still agitato — not slower. And no pause is needed after the first chord.
Bars 47-48 Here is the plaintive part.
Bars 163-164 This was a good dramatic effect.
Bars 177-184 This was a good effect too, with solid bass — often players don't give enough weight to the bass here — it needs it to stabilise it.

April 17, 1974
Sing energetically fast scales with separate action for each note — this makes sure that all the apparatus is working.
Sing first dramatically, say an arpeggio, and then delicately. The apparatus responds automatically to the intention, and there will be no forcing of a high note.

April 20, 1974
Beethoven Moonlight Sonata
1st Movement
The triplets should be more serene & less interfering — but NB they trace out at counterpoint very often — they were sometimes a bit hurried too.
Bar 5 4 against 3 not necessarily literally. If Beethoven played it he probably wouldn't be bound by such things. In fact he probably would soon have crossed out a lot of it or any other piece and said that it should be something else.
Bar 12 LH must go to the a#s with crescendo.
Bar 16 The dissonance in RH can't be avoided of course.
Bar 23 Lack of upward stem on 1st note is carelessness by Beethoven (cf bar 9).
Bar 32 After this bar something is expected.
Bar 33 and it is a melodic treatment (last four notes).
Bar 35 etc. A considerable crescendo seems necessary.
Bar 37 The lower stem on the 7th note doesn't mean it is part of the following pattern.
Bar 40 The b# surely must go to the c#, even though not stemmed so.
Bars 40-41 Not just petering out, but a surge (small) within it, otherwise it loses momentum.
Bar 50 This d-natural is about the most poignant note in the whole movement.
2nd movement
Bars 9-12 Especially bars 9-10 is one phrase as in bars 1-2 so don't pay so much attention to the delayed resolution that it is divided up into two meaningless "phrases" (of 3 quarter notes each). There is a slight break after bar 9(2) but it doesn't separate the thought.
Bar 14 Use the first a'b in RH to give a "lift" to the high one, a''b — almost as if the melody went from the a'b to a''b — compare this with underplaying the a'b, which is not satisfactory.
Bars 17-18 Make this very warm so that the following bars 19-20 can be made considerably contrasting to it — which would not have been possible if the first phrase (17-18) were played too thinly. Thus the bass is quite important.
Bar 30(1) etc. LH 6th interval whereas before 8th at 14(1) etc. Here it prepares to move to f at 34(1).
Third movement
More in and out movement of the arm will enable one to play clearly not only the 1st note of each group but also the intermediate ones, and then the whole thing will sound fast. This should be done even if one does not intend to accent the 1st note of each group by the arm movement, as the arm movement results in clearer playing in any case.
Bar 47 etc. Separate the upbeat from the accented note more clearly and make the strong note stronger.

April 24, 1974
Consonants are done at the end of vowels — thus "mi - mi - mi" becomes, in singing, "m - im - im - i". The singer pours out a continuous stream and the listener makes words out of it.
Similar consonants, as far as position is concerned, are b, p, t, m, d. Some can be lengthened (ss), some can not (t). Some have a sound (m), some have not (t).
A good singer can project a "soft" sound.
First songs: Irish Country Songs edited by Herbert Hughes Vol 1, baritone keys. Schubert An Silvia, An die Musik.

April 27 and May 1, 1974
Vowel begins on the beat, the consonant comes at the end of the previous note and at the pitch (if it has a pitch, as for "m", "n") of the previous note.
An Silvia
The last beat of bar 4 is Schubert's pick-up for beginning the song. First phrase: go to "Sil", but give "via" its full value. The song gets its effect from being sung accurately — in time strictly — the accompaniment doesn't allow any departure from strict time.
Note the structure of the piece in terms of the types of phrases:
1st ending in quarter-note appoggiatura and resolution,
2nd the same,
3rd longer and no appoggiatura,
then the next 3 repeat this same pattern, in a sense, and again the final 3 have the same pattern.
Note the wonderful composition in bars 23-24 — the octave rise and fall would not have occurred to any other composer — others would have just two c's and two d's. [NN: another pattern accounts for and even requires this: in each set of 3 phrases the 1st is higher than the 2nd and the 3rd is higher than both 1st and 2nd.] Each note to be sung deliberately — bar 8 the c', bar 13 the g'#.
Bar 13 "seh" — can put an "h" in the middle here quite markedly at first, but ultimately it is done so slightly as to be not (or hardly) detectable.
Bars 23-24 Each note is a separate note.

May 4, 1974
Accompanying — with Debbie Wadman (soprano)
None but the Lonely Heart — Tchaikovsky
The syncopation in the accompaniment can last through the bar i.e. as if there is just one syncopation at the beginning of the bar (the first ½ beat) which is taken off at the end of the bar, rather than playing each chord as if defining a syncopation.
Last bar: aim as if to end on the second last of the repeated LH chords (after ritardando) and then after a long wait add the last chord, which then is one more than expected by the audience. This idea might seem corny, but it works, and the end of the piece as written by Tchaikovsky is not very good composition.
Fauré Requiem — Pie Jesu
Opening chord: arpeggiate to give it some character — then the singer can wait and come in whenever she likes.
Bars 2-3: bring out the inner voice moving to the chromatic notes — it's not so important to play the top melody with the singer as to add the colour beneath it.
Interludes: make much more of them, especially the inner voices.
Bar 29 etc. can fill out some of the RH chords which are too thin on the piano.
Puccini — O mio Bambino Caro (Gianni Schicchi)
Don't play as an accompanist in such pieces. Represent the orchestra.
Bar 4 a tempo the whole bar (for the singer's entry).
The arpeggios should swell — some slight rush to the top after the 1st note a little separated.
Mr Kilburn once told his first wife Marion she was a lousy accompanist, or words to that effect — didn't provide enough support — she burst into tears and said "How can you say that if you love me?" and he said "Love hasn't got anything to do with it".

May 8, 1974
Mozart Sonata K332 in F 2nd movement
The movement to 6/4 doesn't have to be with crescendo — cf bars 7-8.
Bar 9 The b'b goes to the c''. The intervening g' e' could be played by viola — this can be made clear on a good piano.
Bar 10-11 The passage in 3rds seems weak composition — would seem better if they were 32nd notes. Don't necessarily take the slurs literally. Could try a tempo faster than Adagio, but might spoil the rest of the piece.
Bar 29 The theme is better (easier to play — better register) in this key than bar 9.
Bar 14 Note the changed 32nd note, showing Mozart's sense of humour.
Bar 7 Slurs in the descending passage of 16ths should be well marked.

May 11, 1974
The word "awhile" = a h oo a ee l e — just do one after the other.
"Heart" = h a t , in which the "t" can come very late if desired; there is no need for it to be rushed on to the "a" sound.
Schubert Wanderer Fantasy 1st movement
Bar 1 Rather staccato — more so than bar 18, which is nearly legato.
Bar 20 Delay somewhat the isolated half-note chord.
Bar 37 RH thumb side must play lightly.
Bar 45 Straight on in time — delay possible only at the end of bar 46. This is a very frequent Schubert device. If it is slowed down in bar 45 we see no reason for this.
Bar 133 Use arm release for each 16th note — this is necessary as if each note is not played individually the effect is weak. Cf the song An die Leier. Also bars 137 etc.
Bar 84 etc. The isolated half-note chord corresponds to bar 20 — play accordingly.
[Dr. Snell (voice specialist) Dr. Bateman (hand specialist) for musicians in Toronto.]

May 15, 1974
When going into the falsetto part ("middle voice") keep the activity in the chest region where it was for the lower voice, i.e. don't start trying to do it in the head, abandoning the lower activity.
Mr Kilburn saw Horowitz when he (Horowitz) was in his 20's — he "took the piano apart and scattered it over the stage in little pieces".

May 25, 1974
A dramatic intention is required even to produce any sound (not so for the piano — could throw a stone on the keyboard). Air under pressure — just as in going to the toilet(!). Sounds may have a rather rough edge in general.

May 29, 1974
Each note is a separate act for a pianist, but the listener connects them together. This corresponds closely with singing words — the consonant goes on the end of the syllable and the listener connects up all the sounds made, consonants and vowels, to form words. The vowel always begins on the beat with the consonant already out of the way, because rhythm demands it; rhythm is the most important element in music.
Chopin Etude Op. 10 No 7 in C.
Toccata, so can keep chattering away without much relaxing to be "musical", which is sometimes done to conserve strength — not usually a good idea.

June 1, 1974
Schubert Waltzes
These are 1-beat waltzes, i.e. one step at the beginning of each bar.
Practice sight reading [NN: harmony, i.e. LH, first; only then look at RH].
With any instructions (ff, pp etc.) always ask "why did he put it there?" — don't just do it out of duty.
There should be a slight nasal component (palate up) to any note — experiment with different degrees of nasal sound. If you shout to the distance, you'll use a high pitch (falsetto) without even thinking about it.
Sight reading
Always give the piece some character, even if it's the wrong character.
It's necessary to give some definite instructions — it's not satisfactory to say play the C major scale with any actions you like — the student then doesn't know what to do. So drill the Schmitz in-and-out movements of arm etc.; later refined.

June 8, 1974
Bach Prelude in G. WTC Book I
Toccata-like — quite fast and clean — no pedal — rather detached strokes.
Consonants such as 'f' can't be heard at the back of a large hall — but the bigger the hall, the more exaggerated rendering of consonants is necessary.
Sing through the break to f'# with "mixture". [NN: Apparently done by just visualising mentally the sound (pitch) and then it will produce itself.]
Words: the listener knows what sounds have been sung and forms words out of them; the performer knows what is to come and must assume the listener doesn't know what is to come.
Triplets and many notes per beat: people usually have difficulty because they don't think to the beginning of the next beat but aim only for the start of the last note in the group — instead aim the thought to the end of that note, which is also the beginning of the next beat.
Silences are very important — to avoid the effect that the performer is just counting out his silence — it must seem a necessary thing, and depends on the way the last note is left — easier in concert than on record. Before a single last note or chord (in accompanying) one can keep the audience waiting a long time; might not be so effective on record as it might sound like an unwanted delay.

June 19, 1974
Schubert. Das Wandern.
Very bouncy, with a great deal of "swank" and very young.
Bars 17-18 quite forceful, very enthusiastic; then the pp (which represents thinking the idea, after having exclaimed it) is an effective contrast. A breath can be taken in bar 16, and none then till the end of the verse.
Note that Schubert uses still the 16th-note rhythm for continuity. 'Ist dass denn meine Strasse?' etc. can be almost spoken.
Technique: high notes (above f'# or g'): one should be able to sing these tenor notes, even though one is a "baritone" — the tenor is the one who's limited by the lack of low notes.

June 22, 1974
Das Wandern.
Bar 4 the pause is probably a mistake — go straight on, or make only a very slight gap. The pause probably refers only to the end of the last verse.
Quick breathing in bar 16: take the breath as if en route to the next note; don't have the thought that you're going to stop singing and take the breath and then start singing again.
Last verse NB 'O wandern', whereas before 'Das Wandern'. The singer could hold the last 'wandern' i.e. the last syllable of the song longer then marked. Perhaps there are too many verses; some could be cut.
"ganz (berauscht den Sinn)" first time: grace note short but on the beat.
"(es geh'n ja) Müllenräder" last time: on "der" some small amount of extra time needs to be taken.
"Ei Bächlein, liebes Bächlein" Don't lose any time, and don't change 'liebes' to dotted 8th-16th — instead you can make a lot of the 'l' in 'liebes'.
Am Feierabend.
"und der Meister sprach ..." a different voice for the master speaking.

June 29, 1974
Der Neugierige.
Sing more communicatively — re the 2 words.
Very good; don't increase speed as a result of being carried away.
Technique: 5-note scales up and down fast through the break — don't do anything above the area where the voice works. For fast-moving passages take Messiah bass numbers — work through from the beginning. In a year's time I should sing Christus from the St. Matthew Passion. Arpeggios with 2-octave skip:
o            o

July 3, 1974
Schubert Moment Musical No. 6
Play simpler — it was very expressive and too musical(!)
Decide on tempo before beginning.
Different facial expressions for each phrase. 2bars, 2, 4; 2, 2, 4 etc.
Bars 11-12 probably intended as a very considerable shock and contrast.
Bars 17 etc. don't shorten the initial upbeat 1/4 notes.
Bar 66 etc. don't accelerate
Bar 84 first play the 1st beat, then there is a new gesture for the next two beats; and bring out the top bbb.
Messiah. Thus Saith the Lord.
It is fairly close to speaking, i.e. the words are more important than the melody — so don't have a very singing quality for it.
Bar 4 yet once a little: little = 16th dotted 8th, not 8th 8th.

July 10, 1974
Schubert Minuet D334 in A.
Simply played — the melodic playing then has its effect without exaggeration.
The 2 bars in vi: bring out middle voice which is an echo of the tune.

July 13, 1974
The last wieder-gehen: sing as before, i.e. not the words but the sounds — the 'geh' vowel will become more like an 'ee' sound. Sing the whole length of it.
For ihr Morgensterne, end with a definite moment when the sound stops — can't taper off indefinitely or the voice breaks.
As for Hermann Prey's ending: one can't sing a diminuendo, but instead one changes the quality of the sound.
"So muss..." the "m" is hummed with the pitch of "So" — a hum with normal strong singing intent.
Similarly in Das Wandern: "Die Steine, die Steine" — the first one brilliant and the second one still intense and fully sung (not the word but the sound) but with different quality.
Breathing exercise: breathe in through nose as strongly as possible; this means you have to make great use of the diaphragm apparatus, as there is so little capacity in the nose region.
Posture: ribs must be held out (opened out) but without throwing shoulders back (which would interfere with throat muscles and relaxation — so you have to be to some extent stooped — "like a goon".

July 17, 1974
Schubert Impromptu in Gb D899 no. 3
Middle part must mark the beat, especially in bar 1 — the listener doesn't know the time situation at first — tempo and pulse — so the d'b on the 2nd beat in bar 1 must be recognized — also it is the beginning of the 6-note figure (which is sometimes modified by a rest for the first 16th).
Phrasing: don't slow down at the end of every phrase — it becomes a mannerism — Schubert has made the phrases clear anyway — in singing one wouldn't do it.
(In answer to my question:) Bar 15: goes not to the 64 but to the V7 — an exception; not all 64's are strong.
Bar 25 etc. Middle part should change character according to the new character of the bass.

July 20, 1974
Mozart Sonata in F K280 IInd movement
With a good deal of motion forward.
Bar 3-4 the ear will think the c'' goes to the a'b — nothing can be done about it, but it doesn't matter.
Bar 17 etc. emphasize 1st of the paired notes in RH — but first emphasize the LH note on the 1st beat of each half-bar, which sets off and makes clear the off-beat entry in RH.
Bar 21 the rest on 5th beat should not interrupt the phrase.
Bar 23 2nd beat similarly.
Bar 56 with cresc. up the scale and going to the g'.
In Mozart playing, strive for something (great expressiveness) but with the feeling of continually being held in check.

27 July, 1974
Why do the nations
Bar 20 The weak word "a" on a strong beat was quite a part of the style of the time and earlier (and not due to Handel's being German) so there's no need to redistribute the words.
"Take coun - - - - - sel" in these passages aim for the note the music goes to, here the a (second last note). [NN: It seems that the point at which one approaches running out of air is controlled automatically by the point you're aiming for as the end of your thought. If you have no definite intention of length of phrase, then you'll subconsciously be aiming just in front of your nose and will soon be short of air.]
"against the Lord" breathe after this (dotted half c' note), i.e. before "and against his anoint - - - - - ed" — to breathe after "His" would be too obviously just for the following passage. Instead one can breathe after the f# dotted 8th or after the g dotted 8th. Make these dotted rhythms very short, to contrast with the triplets.
Last phrase beginning on e: the words should be "against the Lord — and (f#) his (g) a (e) noint (b) ed (e)".
Breath possible then after "Lord".
The "oi" sound is "aw-ee", 'aw' being between 'ah' and 'oh' (pure).
'Placing the sound in the head' just means doing what happens when one speaks, i.e. don't try to do something with chest or mouth etc. — the speaking sound comes mostly from the nose region.
Projection in a large hall would have been good — (a very experienced singer would achieve the same effect in a small hall with slightly less than the full "giving it everything" that he'd do in a large hall).

31 July 1974
Singing (and Accompaniment)
Litanei Schubert
The turn is best done in 32nd-notes — anything else would be out of place in the rather precise (rhythmically) song — e.g. 5 against 4 in 16th-notes would be out of place.
Bar 5 last beat get on quickly with the next phrase here.
Postlude: the 3rd member of the sequence he played somewhat differently, with a heavier (different kind of) accent on the a'b.
First do vocalization — make only the amount of movement in the throat necessary to produce the sound — there is a certain minimum that will do it.
Then sing a song, retaining the same vocalization.
In singing there are only two things working: the supply of air, and the throat activity.
Note unusual cadence rhythm in bars 3, 10 — on the last beat of the bar, but still feels complete.
On the last word after the 'n' comes an 'ugh' sound — consonants need vowels around them in order to be recognized clearly — do the 'ugh' at the end of the bar (at the beginning of the next bar it would clash on d'b with c' of accompaniment).
[NN: It seems necessary when giving non-vocal consonants (such as 'h', 'sh') to keep the throat apparatus in position for vocalization, as otherwise the attack after the consonant, on the following vowel, will be impaired (e.g. 'Welt hinuuml;berschieden').]

13 December 1974
Mozart K570 II bars 1-12
Bar 2 After the f' there comes the 3 upbeat notes which should be played with an onward movement — here is where the rhythm must not lag.
Bar 4 The 32nd-notes are not very important; after the b''b, don't go on in cantabile style up to the b''n on c''', but instead aim for the e''b at the beginning of the 2nd beat, and then for the f'' on the 3rd beat (possibly the dissonant g'' first to some extent).
Bar 5 the last 3 notes (upbeat) to be played as such, i.e. as in bar 2.
Bar 6 similarly
Bar 8 keep the descending melodic line going, and merely add the e'''b and c''' as decorations of a kind.
Thus in general: find the main notes and the less important ones, and play them accordingly.
[NN: in bar 8 one could have considered making a lot of the large descending intervals e'''b to f'', and c''' to e''b; but this is not the point of the music — if the main tune were based on such intervals then it might have been relevant, but here it can not be.]
[NN: The important parts of bars 1-4 are: the opening melodic figure, i.e. the first 4 notes, perhaps with the 5th and 6th notes as well; then the 3rd beat of the 2nd bar g' to the following f'; then the repeat of the figure, and then the f'' to e''b on beats 3 & 4 of bar 4. The first 2 beats of bars 2 and 4 seem to be mere upbeats to the cadential 2-note figure. Thus the structure is: A B, A C where C answers B.]

17 December 1974
Mozart K570 I
Always the 1st note must be played in such a way as to compel the attention of the audience — so that they see something's happening.
Also the first note of a phrase must be played similarly, e.g. the b''b in bar 4 — otherwise what follows is wasted.
Bars 35-39 RH Upper arm rotation must be strong. The thumb is played on the way in towards the keyboard for the 1st of each group of 3 notes, and on the way out and up and away for the last of each group of 3 notes.
Bar 40 The chord should be added as something extra after the descent to the c'. Then it has its effect.
Bar 41 Again here one must arrest the attention with the LH part at its beginning. And in the RH part the repeated notes must go to the d'' [NN: but should still begin with a strong c''' as the start of the RH phrase].
[NN: This arresting attention at the beginning contradicts Schnabel who said that an accent arrests attention, i.e. stops the onward flow, and one does not start with a stop. But perhaps to some extent one must start with a stop.] Bar 49 etc. Start each RH figure with strength — a positive gesture.
Bars 1-8 Make a lot of the conversation aspect — the replying phrase either agreeing or disagreeing with the 1st phrase.
Bar 58 Good upper arm rotation needed firmly on the high b''b.
Bar 79 Again the last chord is an extra one, not part of the previous f octave.
Mozart K570 II
Bar 12 If you slow down here a little, then wait a little before the groups of 32nd-notes, rather than slowing down within each group of 32nd-notes — because the group of 32nds is the concluding idea itself.
Bar 13 etc. Note the very different character.
Bar 27-28 Make sure that the return of the theme here and at bar 44 is in the same tempo as bar 1.
Don't make slight delays before important notes — this would say "What a good boy am I".

15 January, 1975
Mozart Sonata K570 III
Not rushed — perhaps play it as if in 4/4 rather than 2/2.

18 January, 1975
Brahms Wiegenlied
"Schlaf nun selig": The sound of "se-" on the middle c will become very close to an "ee" sound if one doesn't try to interfere — Fischer-Dieskau always lets the "ay" sound become "ee" in this region.
Brahms Wie Melodien zieht es mir
"Und schwebt" the "und" vowel will be very short so that the consonants "ns schw" can all be got out of the way before the vowel "e" (which will sound like "ee"). Even a vocalised consonant such as the German "w" is not to be sung on the beat, as the main impression of the word is the vowel itself.
1st verse "leise": listen to the interval Bb - F, i.e. Bb in accomaniment, and give a very full consonant "l".
Elements of singing:
The physical equipment is:
(1) air supply from stomach region
(2) vibrating apparatus in the throat
(3) the instrument from which the sound passes out in the head (even in speaking)
Get consonants out of the way before the vowel is due.
The vowel is due to begin at the beginning of the rhythmical beat.
The vowel sound will naturally become different according to the pitch region if it is not interfered with.
What is delivered is not a word but a succession of sounds, so don't try to "sing a word".
So-called "high notes" are not high in any real sense — they should be thought of as on a line — thus musical notation is very bad from this point of view. [NN: There seems to be a subconscious effort to make the sound from a higher part of the body, as if the throat apparatus itself were now higher placed in the body — instead, simply realize that the throat is still where it was.]

21 January 1975
In singing the 'd' consonant, don't push forward with the jaw and lips but instead only put the tongue forward and then back [NN: otherwise it interferes with the following vowel].

29 January, 1975
Schubert Wandrers Nachtlied
After "Gipfeln" and before "ist" use the glottal catch.
"Balde": don't change the last syllable to a long e sound, leave it just as in "warte", otherwise it stands out.
After "balde" there can be a complete break before "ruhest" - not connected as by Fischer-Dieskau. Between "du auch" again the glottal stop.
For "mixture", practise bb - b'b - f' - d' - bb etc.
The hardest thing for someone who hasn't sung all his life is perhaps to get the conception (visualization) of the kind of ringing sound to produce — you have to be prepared to be noisy and bother people, which singers are used to doing.
The ribs must be held out firmly when singing throughout — in ordinary life we let them collapse — but they must be held out so that one can take a quick breath when you're out of air. The diaphragm pushes down and the stomach muscles push up at the same time, providing a sort of support.
On a different subject: for a lively rhythmic feeling, make the upbeats short, i.e. don't hold them.
An anecdote about Lois Marshall: when a child and in hospital for operations on her leg she sang nevertheless, and they opened the doors of the rooms for the other children to hear her.

12 February, 1975
Schubert Das Wandern
No ritard at the end of the last verse, but hold the last note (voice part) much longer than the 8th-note written.
Don't breathe in bar 18 but go straight on into the repetition of "das Wandern".
At the end, the piano part continues (would be too hard for the accompanist to pick it up again for the postlude if there had been a ritard). Then the last bar cadence is played suddenly zestfully to really round off the piece.
No change of tempo within the piece — spoils its effectiveness — but "bleiben" at the end of each refrain can be sung with some romantic nuance (quasi-ritard). Go straight ahead through the "Dein" etc. right up until the "bleiben".

15 February, 1975
Mozart K570 I
Bars 1-4 main beats quite firm - otherwise the impression is that nothing happened.
Bar 39 The last beat was not clear — if you get the c's then it becomes clear to the listener almost regardless of the 2 following 16ths, i.e. play clearly the 10th 16th-note of the bar.
Bar 43 RH enter quasi up-bows on violin.
Bar 77 again to clarify this, be sure to get the b''b at the beginning of the last beat, i.e. the 9th 16th-note of the bar — then the rest, i.e. the following 3 16ths, will seem understood by the audience even if not clearly played — but without the final b''b this sounds unclear.

22 February, 1975
On a vowel which is assigned to 2 or more pitches, the right attitude is that one is saying that vowel again on the 2nd pitch, and again on the 3rd pitch etc. In beginners the separation should be made with a slight 'h' before each one, because this is the easiest way to make a slight separation — the slight separation is worth doing because of the value for a beginner of exaggerating things — and later it becomes more subtle (otherwise it seems to sound exaggeratedly precise).

22 October , 1975
Chopin Nocturne in F#
Even if the "words" are very beautiful, they must be said as if you really mean them, e.g. "I love you, kid" would not convince a girl, even though the meaning is right.

29 October, 1975
Chopin Nocturne in F#
The Chopin Nocturne again, this time played fully convincingly — one must "let one's hair down".
[NN: It is necessary to "go for broke" even in the most innocent and simple music or part of a piece.] Fear of overacting need not exist — in any case an element of the "ham" must be present in a real performance.
[NN: A good part of the cause of unwillingness to give full expression is probably a fear that it will show in one's face (which it will). This is a necessary part of the whole, and one should be willing to look someone in the eye even under conditions where the face is expressing the emotions.]
Schubert Moment Musical No. 1
This was first played, without sufficient naturalness of expression.
[NN: Don't enter in bar 3 as if one has been counting beats — the rest at the end of bar 2 is the end of a little statement. Then begin again in bar 3, but not coming in with continuous strict beating through the rest.]

7 November, 1975
Schubert Impromptu D899 no. 4
Bars 5-6 in time, at least approximately.
Bar 31 Note effect of major and compare bar 139 later.
Bar 39 Each bar here can be considered a little statement, each with a changed expression. Most likely 39 louder than 40, and 41 than 42.
Bar 47 Single bar gesture continues. LH phrase as marked [NN: hard to believe].
Bar 71 No pause before 72 is needed (nothing very noticeable).
Bar 72 No accent on 2nd quarter; beats 2 and 3 are upbeats [NN: but beats 1 and 2 could come from the basic figure of the previous material].
Good ("almost frightening") but don't distort the LH accompaniment too much and too often, i.e. it should be rather steady and only slightly indicated that it is a different part of the 'orchestration'. For example, don't speed up in bar 1 too much — otherwise it draws attention to itself after a while and becomes annoying to the listener.
Bar 39 etc. here especially let there be no agitation at all — just play straight and evenly and it then has its effect.
Schubert Moment Musical No. 1
Bar 1 the triplet light — especially the thumb not heavy. The triplet is almost not there essentially.
Bar 6-7 still too much pointing out the resolution, i.e. accents overdone.
Bar 13 last note (e) softer than the g, and similarly in the following e.g. bar 15 the thumb on the lower b (RH) shouldn't be heavy.
Bar 33 Resolution on to the 2nd beat, the last 2 chords a separate extension [NN: but the 2nd beat chord could be passing to the lower neighbour before resolving on to the last chord].
Bar 45 NB the wonderful effect of the cn entering.

30 August, 1977
Mr. Kilburn to a singer: "I can't teach you to sing — I can tell you what I know about singing. You have to find what it is in your own romantic soul that you want to express."