One of the inspired statements about public life made in recent years was the late Artur Schnabel's: "Applause is a receipt, not a bill." Schnabel was explaining why he did not render applause the tribute of encores. In his view, his program gave "value received" for the admission price paid. It probably never occurred to him to follow the example of Vladimir de Pachmann, whose audience in London could not be quieted after he played a long, taxing program. He sat down and played the C minor Sonata, opus 111, of Beethoven, to punish them.